PV microgrid business models for energy-delivery services in camps for displaced peoples
Energy services are essential for the protection of basic human rights and dignity. Since 2014, energy issues have been incorporated in United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees global protection strategies. Off-grid solar photovoltaics power solutions can now provide cost-effective clean electricity in camps comprised large populations of displaced peoples, internally displaced and/or refugees. Through microgrid modelling and risk analysis, we outline business models that could provide affordable and appropriate energy to displaced communities. Our proposed PV microgrid build-own-operate business models for camps of displaced populations consider providing household demands, institutional demands, and a combination of the two. We find that sustainable energy services can be provided to humanitarian agencies to power their compounds and community services such as health clinics and administrative centres. A fixed tariff of US$Â 1Â /kWh is viable provided: the local fuel prices are greater than US$Â 0.6Â /L at the point of use, and the capital costs of a backup or existing diesel generator are already covered. A fixed price tariff, mitigates running costs for humanitarian agencies. In addition, by leveraging the institutional energy demands, basic electricity services to up to 500 households for mobile phone charging and lighting could be provided for a monthly tariff of US$Â 1.5 per household, which is favourable compared to the estimated of US$Â 4 monthly cost of kerosene for a typical refugee household. The solutions we propose will reduce costs and improve the sustainability of humanitarian operations while achieving the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees goals by providing electricity to displaced persons for lighting and communications.
ABDILAHI, A. M., YATIM, A. H. M., MUSTAFA, M. W., KHALAF, O. T., SHUMRAN, A. F. & NOR, F. M. 2014. Feasibility study of renewable energy-based microgrid system in Somaliland×³ s urban centers. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 40, 1048-1059. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032114006029
ADIB, R. 2015. Renewables 2015 Global Status Report. http://www.ren21.net/status-of-renewables/global-status-report/
BARRETO, H. & HOWLAND, F. M. 2010. [Accessed 13/03 2016]. Excel Add-In: Monte Carlo Simulation [Online]. http://www3.wabash.edu/econometrics/EconometricsBook/Basic%20Tools/ExcelAddIns/MCSim.htm.
BELLANCA, R. 2014. Sustainable Energy Provision Among Displaced Populations: Policy and Practice. CHATHAM HOUSE. https://www.chathamhouse.org/publication/sustainable-energy-provision-among-displaced-populations-policy-and-practice
BETTS, A., BLOOM, L. & WEAVER, N. 2015. Refugee Innovation: Humanitarian Innovation that Starts with Communities:[report], Refugee Studies Centre. https://www.rsc.ox.ac.uk/refugee-innovation-humanitarian-innovation-that-starts-with-communities
BULUSWAR, S., FRIEDMAN, Z., MEHTA, P., MITRA, S. & SATHRE, R. 2014. 50 Breakthroughs: Critical scientific and technological advances needed for sustainable global development. LBNL Institute for Globally Transformative Technologies, Berkeley, CA, USA [Online]. Available: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/2015/01/14/50-breakthroughs/. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/2015/01/14/50-breakthroughs/
CERRADA, M. I. F. 2016. PV micro-grid Build-Own-Operate business models for energy services in refugee camps. Masters, Universidad Pontificia Comillas ICAI-ICADE.
CHAUREY, A. & KANDPAL, T. 2010. A techno-economic comparison of rural electrification based on solar home systems and PV microgrids. Energy policy, 38, 3118-3129. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421510000807
CORSELLIS, T. & VITALE, A. 2005. Transitional settlement: displaced populations, Oxfam.
COSGRAVE, J. 1996. Refugee density and dependence: practical implications of camp size. Disasters, 20, 261-270. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-7717.1996.tb01038.x/full
DESHPANDE, P. R., KARNATAKI, K. & SHANKAR, G. Mathematical Modelling for Optimal Electrical Energy Generation and Distribution in Remote Micro-Grids. IEEE European Modelling Symposium, 2015 Madrid. http://uksim.info/ems2015/ems2015.htm
FAFI INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATION KENYA 2013. Testing the acceptability and suitability of waka waka solar lamps. Submitted ot UNHCR DADAAB/NAIROBI. https://us.waka-waka.com/media/wakawaka_unhcr_faida_(1).pdf
FRANCESCHI, J., ROTHKOP, J. & MILLER, G. 2014. Off-grid solar PV power for humanitarian action: from emergency communications to refugee camp micro-grids. Procedia Engineering, 78, 229-235. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877705814010480
GIVLER, T. & LILIENTHAL, P. 2005. Using HOMERÂ® software, NRELâ€™s micropower optimization model, to explore the role of gen-sets in small solar power systems. Case Study: Sri Lanka, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado. http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy05osti/36774.pdf
GRAFHAM, O., LAHN, G. & LEHNE, J. 2016. Energy solutions with both humanitarian and development pay-offs. Forced Migration Review, 45. http://search.proquest.com/docview/1790567072
GRAHAM, V. A. & HOLLANDS, K. G. T. 1990. A method to generate synthetic hourly solar radiation globally. Solar Energy, 44, 333-341. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0038092X909013
GUNNING, R. 2014. The current state of sustainable energy provision for displaced populations: an analysis. Chatham house. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/57a089a940f0b652dd000346/61318-ChathamHouseEnergyDisplacedPopulations-an-analysis.pdf
HOMER ENERGY 2016. HOMER User Manual. www.homerenergy.com.
INVERSIN, A. R. 2000. Mini-grid design manual. Energy Sector Management Assistance Programme Technical Paper, 007. http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US2012402804
KEATING, T., WALKER, A. & ARDANI, K. 2015. Best practices in PV system operations and maintenance. US National Renewable Energy Laboratory. http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy17osti/67553.pdf
KEMPENER, R. & BORDEN, E. 2015. Battery storage for renewables: market status and technology outlook. International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA): Abu Dhabi, UAE. http://www.irena.org/menu/index.aspx?mnu=Subcat&PriMenuID=36&CatID=141&SubcatID=495
LILIENTHAL, P., GILMAN, P. & LAMBERT, T. 2005. HOMERÂ® micropower optimization model, United States. Department of Energy.
LUECKE, R. 2002. Finance for managers, Harvard Business Press. https://books.google.com.au/books?id=TRDspIO7PXoC&lr=
LYSEN, E. H. 2013. Pico Solar PV Systems for Remote Homes: A new generation of small PV systems for lighting and communication. International Energy Agency, Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme, IEA PVPS Task, 9. http://iea-pvps.org/index.php?id=299&eID=dam_frontend_push&docID=1433
MARTINOT, E., CHAUREY, A., LEW, D., MOREIRA, J. R. & WAMUKONYA, N. 2002. Renewable energy markets in developing countries. Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, 27, 309-348. http://annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.energy.27.122001.083444
NASA. 2016. Available: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/ [Accessed 09-04 2016 [Online].
NATIONAL RURAL ELECTRIC COOPERATIVE ASSOCIATION 2016. Guides for Electric Cooperative Development and Rural Electrification. http://www.nrecainternational.coop/what-we-do/cooperative-development/cooperative-development-guide/
NIRAULA, A. 2015. Scaling up of off-grid Solar Micro grids. University of Edinburgh. http://scene.community/s/Dissertation_Msc_Anjal-5vwn.pdf
ONUS, R. 2016. RE: Personal Communications with Robert Onus an MSF logistician on power usage in health clinics in developing countries.
UNHCR 2007. Handbook for Emergencies: Third Edition http://www.ennonline.net/unhcrhandbookemergencies
UNHCR 2014. Global Strategy For Safe Access To Fuel And Energy (SAFE). http://www.unhcr.org/en-au/protection/environment/530f11ee6/global-strategy-safe-access-fuel-energy-safe.html
UNHCR 2015a. Statistical Yearbook 2014, 14th edition. http://www.unhcr.org/en-au/statistics/country/566584fc9/unhcr-statistical-yearbook-2014-14th-edition.html
UNHCR. 2015b. UNHCR Emergency Handbook 4th edition [Online].
UNHCR. Available: https://emergency.unhcr.org/ [Accessed 22/05/2017 2017].
UNHCR. 2016. Refugees in Liberia: Nimba, Bahn Refugee Camp [Online]. [Online]. Available:http://data.unhcr.org/liberia/settlement.php?id=32&country=119®ion=24 [Accessed 13/06 2016].
UNHCR & REACH 2014. Economic Survey Of Syrian Refugees: Refugee Camps, Kurdistan Region of Iraq. http://www.reachresourcecentre.info/system/files/resource-documents/anne.thurin-12052014-120240-REACH_KRI_SyrianRefugees%20Economic%20Survey_April2014.pdf
ZYCK, S. A. & KENT, R. 2014. Humanitarian crises, emergency preparedness and response: the role of business and the private sector. UK aid. https://www.odi.org/projects/2738-humanitarian-private-sector-engagement